Paul Sutton


CyberSecurity part 10-1

So far, this series as presented links to a good series on the BASH shell, so you should now be able to navigate and carry out basic and may be more advanced tasks. The series of posts, will now move on to other topics. I am aware that much of this may be new to people.

As I mostly hangout on IRC (Internet Relay Chat), which is a text based real time chat system, I am happy to provide basic support via IRC, probably early evenings (UTC). So between 19:00 and 21:00. I am on irc as zleap.

I have included a direct link below to the web based chat area [2], so using channel #phillw. I know the owner due to being involved with testing big blue button.

You are encouraged to read up a little on IRC [3], For transparency, we are using the Libera Chat network [4]. The web client is hosted with KiwiChat [5].


1 Tuxiversity Forum

Further help with this series of posts

2 IRC Chat 3 What is irc 4 Libera Chat 5 Kiwi Chat



CyberSecurity part 10

So on to video 8 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.


This video completes this 8 part series, the next video that I found covers using the nano editor. After which I have found some more videos that cover shell scripting in more detail. I think it is important to be familiar with an editor before moving. So you may want to skip ahead to tomorrows video watch that, then come back to this if you want to be more familiar with nano going forward.



I am not providing a summary for this.



CyberSecurity part 9

So on to video 7 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.




  • free & free -h
  • df & df -h
  • du & du | les
  • watch – real time monitoring
    • watch free -h – ctrl q to quit
  • dmesg – kernel actions, lots of output so...
    • dmesg | tail
  • to view the last entries in syslog
    • tail / var/log/syslog
    • tail / var/log/syslog > syslog.txt – redirect to a file
  • System d
    • journalctrl – displays messages from boot
  • top – display processes etc
  • htop – as above but nicer program with more control
  • killall – kills a process
  • Network
    • video uses ifconfig, which is depreciated so ..
      • ip addr show – will show your ip and network info
  • ping – tests a website or computer is up
    • ping
    • ping ipaddress e.g ping
  • Mounting file systems
  • lsblk – lists block devices
    • sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt – mounts a device (note this is the example from the video)
    • sudo umount /dev/sda2 – unmounts a device
  • sudo fdisk -l – display info on devices
  • UUID
    • sudo blkid – lists devices and uuid info
  • uname -a – lists system info e,.g kernel version and architecture
  • history – display command history
    • history | less or
    • history 10
  • pressing tab after a partly typed command auto completes e.g :
    • his produces
    • history
  • cal displays calender
  • Disk defrag, as video says this may not be needed, but IS useful if needed
    • sudo ex4defrag /home -c this checks to see if you need to defrag – degrag s only for older hard disks, does not work on solid state devices
  • sudo reboot – will reboot the system
  • sudo shutdown -r – will reboot
  • sudo shutdown -h halts the system
  • sudo shutdown -t 20 – sets a 20 minute timer
    • sudo shutdown -c cancels the shutdown timer

Again, all these commands do have a related man page.



CyberSecurity part 8

So on to video 6 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.




So the topics looked at here are, and this specific to apt, so most of the commands work on Debian, and one or two such as the PPA management is Ubuntu specific. Again watching the video is really useful

  • apt update
  • sudo apt upgrade
  • sudo apt dist-upgrade
  • sudo apt remove
  • sudo apt install
  • apt cache search – for lots of output you can use
    • apt cache search | less
  • downloading deb packages with wget
  • installing downloaded deb packages with dpkg
  • installing from PPA (personal package archive – ubuntu specific)
  • cleaning the system
    • sudo apt clean
    • sudo apt autoclean
    • sudo apt autoremove
    • sudo apt autoclean

Again the man pages have a lot more information.



CyberSecurity part 7

So on to video 5 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.




Not all of these will work with vfsync.

Add user accounts with adduser To drop to that user from your account su – bob (the hyphen is important display groups for a user su -c 'groups' bob

other commands mentioned include :-

useradd – adds user to a grop gropdel / delgroup – manage groups deluser – delete user

All these are covered in man pages

change user password

sudo passwd bob

lock a user out of their account : sudo passwd -l bob – unlock a user account : sudo passwd -u bob

delete a user

sudo deluser bob will only remove a user, to remove their files use

cd /home ls rmdir -r bob (use recursive with extreme caution)

When you set up a user, you add info, this is called finger information, if you need to change this, then you can use the chfn command with

sudo chfn user

Again this is just a summary and should be used in combination with the video.



CyberSecurity part 6

So on to video 4 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.




Find command allows you to find:-

  • Programs
  • Files

man pages

man is short for manual, we cam use this to view the manual pages for commands e.g :-

  • man mv
  • man nano
  • man htop

On a similar note there are also info pages, which are another source of information.

If we want to find programs we can use the which command which outputs the path to a particular program.

Command : which htop Output : /use/bin/htop

Finding files

find -name junk.txt will find and display the path to the junk.txt file

As a normal user you can also search for files such as fstab, however as this is owned by root you will get permission errors.

Find text within files

grep (GNU Regular Expression Parser)

grep nano junk.txt so here we have command string to search for file to look in

we can direct the output of this with

grep nano junk.txt > grep.txt

will search junk.txt for the string nano, the direct the output to the file grep.txt



CyberSecurity part 5

So on to video 3 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.




Video starts off correcting an error from the first video, presenter forgot to cover the copy (cp) command, this is discussed at the start of the video.

Example 1 – make a backup of a file

cp file1.txt file2.bak.txt

Example 2 – Copy a file to home directory

Lets say we are in /home/user/junk (like in the video):-

cp file1.txt ~/ will copy to home directory. You can use cd,, to drop down a level in the file system to /home/user to confirm this.

Also use wildcards e.g

cp *.txt will copy any files with .txt as the extension.

User permissions

chmod – change mod using sudo on its own has a time out sudo -s assumes the root user to root until you type exit

root user has a # normal users have $

changing owner permissions

chown – change owner

chown user:group file.txt

You need to be root for this so use sudo chown user:group file.txt



CyberSecurity part 4

So on to video 2 of 8, I will maintain the login link so that you don't need to go hunting back through previous posts.



So this episode looks at how we can view the content of text files, which are used for pretty much everything on GNU / Linux system.

On a very basic level, the echo command will send the contents of a file to the screen

echo file.txt

cat – which is short for conCATenate is good for looking at short files, however sometimes we have files that are longer than the screen can display so we can use the less command

cat filename less filename

The less command stops displaying contents and then allows us to view more lines by pressing enter on the keyboard, press q to quit this program.

You can also apply this to more than one file

cat file1.txt file2.txt

we can also pipe output of cat in to less e.g

cat /etc/fstab | less to get the same effect

Sometimes we need to add a single line to the end of a file (append) we can add another like to the end of file.txt with:-

echo “new text” >> file.txt

You can also append the contents on one file to the end of another

cat file1.txt >> file2.txt

To edit a file in more depth, we need to use an editor such as nano

So nano /etc/fstab will open the file as read only,* this is because files such as /etc/fstab re read only to normal users, in order to edit, you need to elevate your privileges using sudo.

sudo nano /etc/fstab

You will need to enter your password to proceed at this point, of course your user needs to be part of the sudoers list in order to do this, otherwise you get reported to your sysadmin. Ubuntu based distributions use sudo to elevate permissions by default, Debian using root / user set up so you have to use su unless you set your system user up to use sudo.




CyberSecurity part 3

You should now be set up with an account, so go ahead and login via the home page


Once logged in you will see the above screen

So as mentioned, I will be sharing a series of 8 videos that cover different topics on using the command line shell (BASH).

Note: Not all the commands covered in this BASH series will work, partly as it seems some are not included in the vfsync system.

Note 2 Also worth saying that vfsync using the sh shell and not the bash shell. This is more of a workaround, to provide shell access.

If you are concerned about privacy, I have included the invidious link below too.


So some of the commands covered in this video include:- * cal – calendar * man – man pages * clear – clear screen * pwd – print / present working directory * ls – list storage * ls -a show hdd * files prefixed with a period . are hidden * ls -a -l (-l is long format, more information) * cd – change directory cd no argument – back to home * e,g cd Music * mkdir – make directory (mkdir junk) * absolute and relative paths * absolute – path from root of file system /home/user/junk * relative – path from where you are now e.g cd Music * pushd and popd – go back and forth between folders (see video for details ) so pushd /home/user/music/pop from /home/user switches to the pop directory, using popd goes back to where you were before e.g /home/user * touch filename * touch file2 file3 * touch file1 (existing file) will update the date / time stamps * rm filename – deletes a file * mv filename newfilename – * can also move a file : mv file1 /home/user/junk/files/ * rmdir – remove directory * rm -r – recursive

Shell – $ = indicates your normal user is logged in

= denotes root (admin)

Linux directory structure

directories and folders (interchangeable)

dir struc Cite

explanation of /etc /dev /home /usr /var folders and their related subfolder.

/usr – universal system resources




CyberSecurity part 2

As mentioned in the previous post. I am going to start by presenting an introduction to the Linux command line (Terminal).


So as this screen says, you can create an account. If you go ahead and do this here

Note: Once account is created, give the system time to set everything up (otherwise you get an error about unauthorised user) you can login to this via the website using the login button.

Please note: As there are a huge number of videos on this, already on platforms such as Youtube. I intend to use these as a basis for this series. However I would like to be able to expand further, as we go providing a summary of what is covered etc.


Part 3 will be on May 4th.