# Research

## March 18, 2022

Open Source in Science

This is an interesting podcast from Physics world on how free and open source software is used in Physics.

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## December 11, 2021

Paper on Covid 19 transmission

I was sent this during a discussion on Mastodon about masks and how effective masks are, when worn by people who may not put on properly, compared to a doctor who has a team of people to ensure this happens. Interesting discussion and nice be sent a link to an actual paper to provide some help with the discussion.

Feel free to join / continue the discussion, however you will need to join mastodon and follow me @zleap@qoto.org to do so.

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Bibliography Information (just for reference)

@article {Bagherie2110117118,
author = {Bagheri, Gholamhossein and Thiede, Birte and Hejazi, Bardia and Schlenczek, Oliver and Bodenschatz, Eberhard},
title = {An upper bound on one-to-one exposure to infectious human respiratory particles},
volume = {118},
number = {49},
elocation-id = {e2110117118},
year = {2021},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.2110117118},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
abstract = {Wearing face masks and maintaining social distance are familiar to many people around the world during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Evidence suggests that these are effective ways to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is not clear how exactly the risk of infection is affected by wearing a mask during close personal encounters or by social distancing without a mask. Our results show that face masks significantly reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to social distancing. We find a very low risk of infection when everyone wears a face mask, even if it doesn{\textquoteright}t fit perfectly on the face.There is ample evidence that masking and social distancing are effective in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. However, due to the complexity of airborne disease transmission, it is difficult to quantify their effectiveness, especially in the case of one-to-one exposure. Here, we introduce the concept of an upper bound for one-to-one exposure to infectious human respiratory particles and apply it to SARS-CoV-2. To calculate exposure and infection risk, we use a comprehensive database on respiratory particle size distribution; exhalation flow physics; leakage from face masks of various types and fits measured on human subjects; consideration of ambient particle shrinkage due to evaporation; and rehydration, inhalability, and deposition in the susceptible airways. We find, for a typical SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectious dose, that social distancing alone, even at 3.0 m between two speaking individuals, leads to an upper bound of 90\% for risk of infection after a few minutes. If only the susceptible wears a face mask with infectious speaking at a distance of 1.5 m, the upper bound drops very significantly; that is, with a surgical mask, the upper bound reaches 90\% after 30 min, and, with an FFP2 mask, it remains at about 20\% even after 1 h. When both wear a surgical mask, while the infectious is speaking, the very conservative upper bound remains below 30\% after 1 h, but, when both wear a well-fitting FFP2 mask, it is 0.4\%. We conclude that wearing appropriate masks in the community provides excellent protection for others and oneself, and makes social distancing less important.Previously published data were used for this work (https://aerosol.ds.mpg.de/). All other study data are included in the article and/or SI Appendix.},
issn = {0027-8424},
URL = {https://www.pnas.org/content/118/49/e2110117118},
eprint = {https://www.pnas.org/content/118/49/e2110117118.full.pdf},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences}


## December 5, 2021

Science Daily : Articles on Plastics and Polymers

The two articles were posted to Mastodon.

Firstly a look at the problem of Micro-plastics

Secondly an article on Polymers

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## September 15, 2021

Planets form in organic soups with different ingredients

Interesting article found on Mastodon, scientists have mapped the chemical composition of planetary nurseries. Looks like I have quite a bit of reading to do, as there are 3 papers linked to this article.

I have included the usual links to the original article & discourse discussion.

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Citations

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. “Planets form in organic soups with different ingredients: A series of new images reveals that planets form in organic soups — and no two soups are alike.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 September 2021

## August 17, 2021

Biomolecules imaged at record-breaking resolution using localization atomic force microscopy

This is an article [1] from Physics World. We now have the ability to take really detailed images of molecules. This is really important, if not rather complex but we have made huge progress in this. Should aid study of molecules and perhaps open up new fields of research.

Back in 1989 IBM made their logo from Xenon atoms [4]. So I guess this shows how much progress we have made since then.

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## August 16, 2021

Novel food solutions for a more sustainable future – CNA

Interesting article from Channel News Asia (CNA) on sustainable food production.  As climate change and disasters jeopardise food security, could the switch to alternative proteins be the solution to the region’s need for a sustainable food ecosystem? Money Mind reports. 

Looks like some good innovation here. This was posted by GreenPeace [1] to Mastodon. The article [2] is worth reading so I am not going to try and paraphrase and sum up here as the message could end up getting lost that way. If you are not sure what Jackfruit are, I have also included a link to a BBC Food page on this [3].

I wasn't however aware that rice production was being affected by climate change. This really isn't good given how widespread rice is, for so many in Asia.

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## August 12, 2021

New evidence of a large cold spot partly causing dimming of Betelgeuse

This is another interesting item found on the Fediverse. It seems Betelgeuse is still active. It does appear that there are different ideas as to why this is happening

If Betelgeuse does go Super Nova then this activity may give clues to how stars can behave before hand, giving indications to future events that can be studied more closely perhaps.

I have added a discourse link in case anyone would like to comment further generally.

I have downloaded the paper for this, from Nature Communications.

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## June 22, 2021

Biotechnology Definition

As I have been making posts on the various webinars I have been attending. I decided to make a post to point to the definition of Biotechnology. This is for informational reasons. Included links to a few forms too.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

## February 12, 2021

Astronify testing

Back in 2020 I attended a Space Telescope Science Institute lecture on Astronify and wrote a review on this.

I an going to attempt to test the software out, so the first task is to install python-pip

May as well install this for both python and python3

apt install python-pip python-pip-whl python3-pip python3-pipdeptree

pip install astronify
Collecting astronify
Could not find a version that satisfies the requirement astronify (from versions: )
No matching distribution found for astronify



Astronify is on pypy so it makes sense to perhaps do a apt search on this:-

I found the following package

pypi2deb

apt install pypi2deb has quite a few extra requirements so may take a while

man page for pip also points to

pip search

so tried to do a search for astronify but the package seems to crash,

pip search astronify
Exception:
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pip/_internal/cli/base_command.py", line 143, in main
status = self.run(options, args)
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pip/_internal/commands/search.py", line 48, in run
pypi_hits = self.search(query, options)
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pip/_internal/commands/search.py", line 65, in search
hits = pypi.search({'name': query, 'summary': query}, 'or')
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xmlrpclib.py", line 1243, in __call__
return self.__send(self.__name, args)
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xmlrpclib.py", line 1602, in __request
verbose=self.__verbose
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pip/_internal/download.py", line 791, in request
return self.parse_response(response.raw)
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xmlrpclib.py", line 1493, in parse_response
return u.close()
File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xmlrpclib.py", line 800, in close
raise Fault(**self._stack[0])
Fault: <Fault -32500: "RuntimeError: PyPI's XMLRPC API has been temporarily disabled due to unmanageable load and will be deprecated in the near future. See https://status.python.org/ for more information.">



So at first glance this may not seem useful, the error is more useful to anyone who understands it. Next step would be to ask on some forums for help.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License