Paul Sutton

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Electronic Structures of Atoms

In Chemistry is important to know how electrons are arranged in their orbitals. The guide below is a really good explanation of this.

Links

Typesetting

If you are using LaTeX to write up reports, then it may be useful to be able to confidently type set how electrons are arranged in their shells and subshells.

if we take an example for Boron from the above website, we can type set this in $\LaTeX$ using math mode:-

$1s^22s^22p_x^1$

The result is a nicely typeset electron configuration.

This is not perfect as it should display the final x as a subscript (below) the the 1 as a superscript next to this. But it should be possible to fix.

This tutorial is sort of related but may be useful for drawing diagrams.

To draw the orbital diagrams you need to use :-

\usepackage{ amssymb }

Then in the document use

\upharpoonleft and \upharpoonright

$\upharpoonleft$ and $\upharpoonright$

For this article I used detexify to figure out the \LaTeX code for the graphics.

Update : 25/2/2022

Having asked on the OU forum about this, in this thread reply I have been advised to use the mhchem package and this will type set the orbitals much better.

\usepackage[version=3]{mhchem} % you may prefer the spacing using version=4
...
$\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p_x^1}$

Tags

#LaTeX,#Chemistry,#Typesetting,#Orbitals,#AtomicStructure

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top and htop process viewing and management

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When using a GNU Linux system it is really useful to be able to manage what running process are doing, this could be simply seeing what system resources are being used, or stopping processes from running, to changing how they run with tools such as nice / renice.

The console / terminal top, gives you a view of all the running processes and allows you to control these processes easily.

TOP

top

HTOP

If you would like a slightly different tool that allows you to move up / down the process list, you may want to loop at htop. This seems to offer the same functionality as top. Top is probably better for running so you can keep an eye on what things are doing.

htop

OTHER RELATED TOOLS

These tools offer the sort of functionality that is achieved by commands such as :

  • ps
  • nice
  • renice
  • kill
  • killall

But you need to look these up and read up about them on on the man page(s).

REFERENCES

TAGS

#YearOfTheFediverse,#GNU,#Process,#Managemet,#top,#htop,#tools

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