Paul Sutton


Paper on Covid 19 transmission

I was sent this during a discussion on Mastodon about masks and how effective masks are, when worn by people who may not put on properly, compared to a doctor who has a team of people to ensure this happens. Interesting discussion and nice be sent a link to an actual paper to provide some help with the discussion.

Feel free to join / continue the discussion, however you will need to join mastodon and follow me to do so.




Bibliography Information (just for reference)

@article {Bagherie2110117118,
	author = {Bagheri, Gholamhossein and Thiede, Birte and Hejazi, Bardia and Schlenczek, Oliver and Bodenschatz, Eberhard},
	title = {An upper bound on one-to-one exposure to infectious human respiratory particles},
	volume = {118},
	number = {49},
	elocation-id = {e2110117118},
	year = {2021},
	doi = {10.1073/pnas.2110117118},
	publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
	abstract = {Wearing face masks and maintaining social distance are familiar to many people around the world during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Evidence suggests that these are effective ways to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is not clear how exactly the risk of infection is affected by wearing a mask during close personal encounters or by social distancing without a mask. Our results show that face masks significantly reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to social distancing. We find a very low risk of infection when everyone wears a face mask, even if it doesn{\textquoteright}t fit perfectly on the face.There is ample evidence that masking and social distancing are effective in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. However, due to the complexity of airborne disease transmission, it is difficult to quantify their effectiveness, especially in the case of one-to-one exposure. Here, we introduce the concept of an upper bound for one-to-one exposure to infectious human respiratory particles and apply it to SARS-CoV-2. To calculate exposure and infection risk, we use a comprehensive database on respiratory particle size distribution; exhalation flow physics; leakage from face masks of various types and fits measured on human subjects; consideration of ambient particle shrinkage due to evaporation; and rehydration, inhalability, and deposition in the susceptible airways. We find, for a typical SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectious dose, that social distancing alone, even at 3.0 m between two speaking individuals, leads to an upper bound of 90\% for risk of infection after a few minutes. If only the susceptible wears a face mask with infectious speaking at a distance of 1.5 m, the upper bound drops very significantly; that is, with a surgical mask, the upper bound reaches 90\% after 30 min, and, with an FFP2 mask, it remains at about 20\% even after 1 h. When both wear a surgical mask, while the infectious is speaking, the very conservative upper bound remains below 30\% after 1 h, but, when both wear a well-fitting FFP2 mask, it is 0.4\%. We conclude that wearing appropriate masks in the community provides excellent protection for others and oneself, and makes social distancing less important.Previously published data were used for this work ( All other study data are included in the article and/or SI Appendix.},
	issn = {0027-8424},
	URL = {},
	eprint = {},
	journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences}

What is a particle?

Another interesting item I just found on Mastodon. A post with a link to quanta magazine on an article asking the very question above.

It is a very interesting and engaging article, great for anyone probably studying science from GCSE to A'level or above. I have added a link to discourse and a link to a discussion.




History of Afghanistan

As of 17th August 2021, the Taliban swift take over of Afghanistan [1] is in the news. I decided to look up the history of Afghanistan, which is really interesting.

Granted Wikipedia is NOT considered an academic source of information, nevertheless this article makes interesting reading and if you are writing an essay or paper then there are citations and references to the authors sources of information. Which would make further reading too.

Interesting quote in the article

“Afghanistan is “easy to march into, hard to march out of.” was made by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, assuming I have read understood the article correctly, the situation is not much different now.

I will have another look later as the article is right up August 1t5th at the time of writing this.

I think by understanding the history of the country more, then it does make understanding the current situation better . Given that it has been invaded so many times, and each time the culture has been influenced, both in what seems positive and negative ways.



  1. Afghanistan
  2. History of Afghanistan

Africa Wiki Challenge

This is a contest, to improve the information on Africa on the Wikipedia online encyclopedia. There are criteria for taking part. Great idea and initiative to improve the service.




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Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Beach Hut Article – Jan 2021

The LibrePlanet article, I submitted to the Beach Hut, which is a local community magazine here in Paignton has been published in the January 2021 edition.

It can be found on page 32. Please click here for a link to the latest digital edition.


Debian Academy update

As posted about on the 14th September I am involved in the DebianAcademy.

In addition making various related presentations in LaTeX / Beamer. I am currently working on a Moodle course how to do this.

So the LaTeX template, is being used as part of the course, and it can also be used as a basis for other presentations.

So far this is work in progress.

In other news I have submitted an article to the Torbay Weekly to promote the DebianAcademy and reach out to a few more potential contributors.

#debian,#teams,#academy,#education,torbayweekly,#moodle, #latex,#beamer,#course,#lessons,#article