# space

## April 9, 2021

Spacefarers: How Humans Will Settle the Moon, Mars, and Beyond : Writeup

6th April

Speaker: Christopher Wanjek Description: More than 50 years after the Apollo 11 moon landing, why is there so little human presence in space? Will we ever reach Mars? What will it take to become a multi-planet species, colonizing the Solar System and travelling to other stars?

With details here

Write up.

This was another really interesting, thought provoking lecture presented by Christopher Wanjek

The lecture started at about 15:30 in to the video after Frank has given his introduction, details of upcoming lectures and also an update on space news.

So some of the items covered were the cost and difficulty of getting off Earth in to space, then on to the Moon, very expensive. However once there, we are not out of the woods, the lunar surface is bombarded with radiation, the moon dust itself is toxic, growing food would need to be undertaken under artificial light, due to the radiation.

As the temperature on the moon can fluctuate between -200 and +200 F then one course of action for establishing some sort of presence on the moon would be the poles, where the temperature is a “cold, but workable” -50c.

We can harvest ice to produce Water, which can also be converted in to Hydrogen and Oxygen,

Christopher also then looked at how we can develop science on the Moon, Geology, Biology.

A look at gravity and how much humans rely on Gravity and how this can perhaps be created artificially.

The European Space Agency are looking at sending pods to the moon, build something before we go, I think it was also suggested we need to cover any buildings with moon dust, in order to provide full shielding from radiation. This apparently needs to be about 1 meter thick layer. Bare in mind that the dust is like Asbestos. Getting around and some transportation systems were suggested.

We may need to live in caves as these would be a constant temperature and a shield against radiation.

Space tourism could potentially be a huge industry As We are unable to have children on the Moon (something to do with gravity) then building cities may not be practical.

So on to Mars

Firstly getting there is dangerous, we are potentially exposed to radiation over a long period of time, once there the surface is still bombarded with radiation and there are dust storms to contend with, However it was suggested we could live in caves

One way of protecting us from radiation is to use Boron Nitriade, as boron can absorb secondary particles .

Mars surface has toxic components, so we may have to grow food under LED lights.

So lots to think about, lots of challenges a head so a great time to discuss more, study science and help work on the solutions needed.

A lot more was discussed including design of space suits,

Thank you for reading, worth checking out the video and the book Spacefarers by Christopher.

You can find more upcoming (monthly) lectures below.

## April 3, 2021

Spacefarers: How Humans Will Settle the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

6th April

Speaker: Christopher Wanjek Description: More than 50 years after the Apollo 11 moon landing, why is there so little human presence in space? Will we ever reach Mars? What will it take to become a multi-planet species, colonizing the Solar System and traveling to other stars?

With details here

You can find more upcoming (monthly) lectures below.

http://www.stsci.edu/public-lectures

## March 25, 2021

Zooniverse Dark energy Explorers

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## March 2, 2021

The Hubble Space Telescope: From Cosmological Conflict to Alien Atmospheres

Write up : 7th March 2021

This is a really interesting talk and overview of what the HST has undertaken since launch in 1990.

Some highlights

• Gravitational lensing, found galaxies magnified 50x and detection of galaxies 10x fainter.
• Precision cosmology & Hubble Constant calculations via several methods
• Exoplanet Atmospheres
• Exoplanets e.g 57 Pegasi
• Exoplanets found from transiting host star
• Planetary Atmospheres plus detection of organic molecules
• Earth size Exoplanets (Trappist 1b and 1c)

The talk also makes reference to academic papers, which can be easily searched for, so for example

With the last point in the list above, this paper was De Wit, et al 2016 Nature 537,69 – if you search for this you find arxiv 1006.01103 which is publication in the above journal 2016Natur 537

The 537 refers to the volume, and 69 is the first page of the article, in this case the article is on pages 69 to 72.

So using the references from the talk you can do further reading.

Well worth watching

Space Telescope Science Institute Public lectures The Hubble Space Telescope: From Cosmological Conflict to Alien Atmospheres Tue 2nd March 2021

## February 16, 2021

Ethics and space exploration

As humans start to venture back in to space with the view of returning to the Moon in 2024, then eventually moving on to Mars and beyond.

This paper [1] written Frank Tavars (from NASAs Ames Research Centre,) et al, raises some very interesting ideas on how we should about space exploration, but don't repeat our colonial mistakes we made on Earth.

Link [2] is the same link but using the paper code and the citation guide is below that.

Hopefully discussion and lead to some really useful feed back for NASA so as a human race we can move forward and explore space responsibly.

arXiv:2010.08344 [astro-ph.IM]
(or arXiv:2010.08344v2 [astro-ph.IM] for this version)


I have also set up a Qoto Discourse Thread to discuss further.

Thanks to Derek Caelin for posting a link to this to both Mastodon and Twitter.

Also included a link to the Mumbai university astrobiology course as there is discussion on * Space Policy and Planetary Protection* which may be interesting.

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## February 4, 2021

February STSCI lecture review

This months lecture Milky Way vs Andromeda: When galaxies collide. was really interesting, and covered material about how galaxies are formed, looking for life and what may happen when in 7 billion years, the Andromeda galaxy merges with our own, home galaxy.

The lecture also talked about how galaxies were first discovered and how, only in the last 100 years have we really started to learn a lot more about them. Why the two will merge is linked to the expansion of the universe.

Earth, of course, won't exist by then. The sun, being 4 billion years old, will have expanded to a red giant. As the duration of a 'main sequence star' is about 10 billion years (cite OU Open Learn The Sun)

So the lecture also included about how we could find earth 2.0, the fact that this. may not be easy given the time it will take to reach even the nearest start.

Proxima Centauri (4.2ly) and the planet around that isn't very hospitable.

Personal comment to add to this

I would guess it also raises the question if it will take 10's of 1000s of years to reach will it be the same or have developed to be more life friendly, then on the other side of that a planet that is life friendly now, may like the Earth not be so friendly i 1000's of years time.

Looking forward to the next lecture in March.

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## February 2, 2021

The Milky Way vs. Andromeda: When Galaxies Collide

Space Telescope Science Institute Public lectures The Milky Way vs. Andromeda: When Galaxies Collide Tue 2nd Feb 2021

## January 24, 2021

SpaceX Launch

Less than 1 hour till the next Falcon 9 Launch. (15:00 UK time)

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## January 19, 2021

The Darkest Secrets of the Universe

Space Telescope Science Institute Public lectures The Darkest Secrets of the Universe Tue 19 Jan 2021

## January 6, 2021

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