Paul Sutton


Home Chemistry 3 – Molar Solutions

Last year, I had a go at preparing a known concentration 1M of Sodium Chloride (Salt). Using the instructions at Quora.

In order to some chemicals for future use. I will use the same instructions to create a known concentration of Citric Acid, given I want to test the reactivity between this and various metals, in a similar way to my previous experiment in Home Chemistry 1


  1. Decide how much solution is needed – 250ml
  2. Determine Molar mass of Citric Acid
    • According to PubChem this is 192.12g
  3. Work out how much solid powder is needed
    • Given 1 Mol is the molecular weight in 1 litire of water
  4. We are producing 250ml – so need to weigh out ¼ of the molar mass
    • 192.12 / 4 = 48.03g
  5. So based on the instructions I found for NaCl
  6. We need to dissolve 48.03g in 250ml of Water to produce 250ml 1 molar concentration of Citric Acid


  1. Refer to data sheet – We know that Citric Acid is a Irritant, therefore it would be prudent to stick the CORRECT label on the bottle storing the solution.
  2. Correctly label the bottle
  3. Wear goggles when preparing the solution
  4. Wear gloves and Lab Coat
  5. Clean Surfaces
  6. Wash hands when finished


  • Scales or Balance
  • Volumetric Flask *1
  • Stirrer
  • Spatula
  • Paper to write notes
  • Paper to put on scales for powder
  • Funnel
  • Label saying 250ml 1 mol Citric Acid
  • Label giving formula and Molar weight
  • Irritant label

Equipment Replacement

*1 As I don't have a volumetric Flask, I can use a 250 or 500ml Conical Flask


My weighing scales are only basic and do not measure to 2 decimal places, there for we can weigh out 48g. As this is for home chemistry, while accuracy is important, we can probably make minor compromises.


  • Water
  • Citric Acid Powder


Read fully first

  1. Prepare equipment
  2. Measure out 250ml Water
  3. Fold paper in ½
  4. Unfold paper
  5. Put paper on scales
  6. Ensure Scales are ZERO
  7. Weigh out required amount of Citric Acid Powder
  8. Pour powder in to flask and stir or move flask around in a circular motion*
  9. Pour solution in to suitable container
  10. Stick on labels
  11. Wash up and dry equipment
  12. Wipe down surfaces etc
  13. Wash hands
  14. Store solution safely

Note the fold in the paper,just makes this easier.

  • You may need to pour small amounts in to the flash, and dissolve before adding more

Further reading and advice

There will be a related thread on Science Forums for this, as I want to double check everything is correct.



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Home Chemistry 2 – Magnesium

In an effort to help improve reactions of the Magnesium ribbon I have at home, I tried cleaning one piece with a sanding block, and a cleaning block used for cleaning vero / stripboards before soldering. I got some advice from Science Forums on this.

The result of can be seen in the photo below, so I have two pieces here for comparison. The difference is clear.

White Vinegar



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Home Chemistry 1

A few days ago I was having a look what would happen if various metallic elements were added to a beaker of Distilled White vinegar.

Using Zinc (Zn) didn't appear to do very much, however dropping Magnesium (Mg), did appear to produce a slow reaction, which seemed to result in the magnesium dissolving.

So the experiment I am going to carry out will use the following:


  • Test Tube Rack
  • 3 Test tubes

White Vinegar


  • Zinc Granuals (Zn)
  • Copper Foil (Cu)
  • Magnesium Ribbon (Mg)
  • Distilled White Vinegar

White Vinegar


  • Universal indicator paper

This is not strictly needed, but will be used to test the pH of the vinegar before I start.


  1. Part fill each test tube with White Vinegar
  2. Place 1 sample of each element in a test tube.
    • Note Copper foil and magnesium ribbon should be cut to size.
  3. Place out of the way for a period of time and monitor results


Experiment started 14:13 on 03/01/2023



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Virtual Code Club August 2020

The Paignton Library virtual code club is still running, please feel free to share what you are working on in Scratch with our Scratch studio

cc-by logo

This is a newly created studio for these completed projects.

To keep people safe this studio is also invite only you will therefore need to contact the library, provide your scratch user name and I can invite you in.

Please contact [Paignton Library and information centre](

Related profiles :-

Both and FreeCodeCamp have excellent features, to share code, ask for help and help others.

I have been looking in to the teams feature at the moment, early days as I think I will wait till the forum feature is up as this seems integral to the teams feature.

Stay safe on the forums.

For advice on e-safety please see ThinkUKnow

#scratch,#studio, #education, #school, #home, #activities, #virtual, #codeclub,

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