# chemistry

## August 9, 2020

Organic Chemistry 6: Benzene Derivatives in Organic-Chemistry

So as an extension to yesterdays post Compound chemistry have an infographic on Benzine derivatives.

So once you have made a Benzine molecule, this can be easily modified to some of what is presented here.

## August 7, 2020

Organic Chemistry: 5 Phenyl Group

As Polystyrene Contains a C6H5 Phenyl group. Before moving on to building this, we can look at similar molecules that also contain this group.

Video should show making of the above compounds with Molymod components.

Tomorrow, I will post a follow up on more benzene based molecules to build. So please keep hold of the C6H6 Benzine model.

If you would like any further help with chemistry (or any other science subject) then I have found ScienceForums to be a very useful, friendly and educational forum.

## August 7, 2020

Organic Chemistry 4 : Plastics

Previous post

Moving on lets have a look at:-

I have built this using Molymods in the video below, Just imagine that the rest of the white atoms (hydrogen from previous video) are in fact green, Chlorine atoms.

You may find Molview helpful for visualising molecules on your computer screen too. This could complement physical building which I find can help understanding further.

I will post a few more videos showing the other molecules in that section of the infographic.

**Note: ** Polytetrafluoroethylene. It appears that Polytetrafluroethylene and Polytetrafluroethene are the same molecule, with different spellings depending on if you're using US or GB English.

## August 7, 2020

Organic Chemistry 3 Plastics

Following on from organic-chemistry-2 we have had a look at Alcohols. So will now turn some attention to plastics.

So again we can construct models of plastics in a similar way, the main difference here is that plastics are POLYMERS, which are MONOMERS chained together.

Mono – Single Poly – Multiple

So looking at the above you will notice that they are using n to indicate there is more than 1 in the chain.

So starting with ${C2H2}$ or Ethene, this becomes Polyethene when more monomers are added to the chain.

So in the video below, I construct Ethene and then, in the spirit of Blue Peter, I am then using a few more I made earlier.

You may find Molview helpful for visualising molecules on your computer screen too. This could complement physical building which I find can help understanding further.

I will post a few more videos showing the other molecules in that section of the infographic.

## August 6, 2020

Organic-chemistry-2

So following on from organic-chemistry-1. Lets have a quick look at another group: Alcohols.

SO following the same naming convention as Alkanes, we name Alcohols in a similar way.

• Methanol ${CH3OH}$
• Ethanal ${C2}{H5}{OH}$
• Butanol ${C3H7}{OH}$
• Propaol ${C4H9}{OH}$
• Pentanol ${C5H11}{OH}$

So in the video below. I have taken Methane and Pentane and made Methanol and Pentanol respectively from these.

As an extension to this, we can of course also construct 3-Pentanol where the Functional alcohol group is on the 3rd carbon along the chain. See video below.

You may find Molview helpful for visualising molecules on your computer screen too. This could complement physical building which I find can help understanding further.

Hopefully this is helpful. Have fun.

## August 5, 2020

Organic Chemistry 1 (Basic Alkanes)

So following on from molecular-modelling-with-clay-part-1

I am going to stick to using the actual molymod kits. However, feel free to use clay if you don't have access.

So I have built

• Methane ${CH4}$
• Ethane ${C2}{H6}$
• Butane ${C3H8}$
• Propane ${C4H10}$
• Pentane ${C5H12}$

I have presented how these look in the video below.

So this shows you what these molecules look like using spacefill.

And below is a basic construction guide.

The following infographic may be useful here.

You may find Molview helpful for visualising molecules on your computer screen too. This could complement physical building which I find can help understanding further.

Further help and questions

If you would like any further help with chemistry (or any other science subject) then I have found ScienceForums to be a very useful, friendly and educational forum.

Free signup and there is a section there on homework help. As long as you follow the forum guidelines then someone should be able to help, don't forget to upvote any answers.

Feel free to tag me in to posts @paulsutton, I am sure there are others who may be more able to help with specific questions on science generally.

## July 25, 2020

More molecular modelling

So following on from my Post on 23/7/2020 I decided to share some of the info graphics created by Compound Chemistry

These are useful for GCSE and A'level chemistry. Building the models could help enforce the learning provided. I would strongly suggest talking to your teacher for advice on this.

So first off, looking at how different organic molecules are named.

So you should be able to take some of the diagrams here and create some basic models. Don't forget to you can use the bendy straws for double bonds.

As isomerism is also covered in the curriculum (or was) this may also be useful.

There are lots of infographics on the website listed below.

## July 24, 2020

Molecular weight calculator

I decided to write this to help calculate molar weights for chemistry.

In essence you can enter the Mass of an element or molecular mass of a substance, compound etc, and this will help give you molar weight, for example 0.5 mol.

It is, for example common to have different concentrations of an acid for example. We know that Sodium Hydroxide has a weight of 40 because of the combined weight of its components:

$NaOH$ which equates to

Na = 22 + O = 16 + H = 1 = 39

Therefore 1 mol of NaOH = 39g which is of course equal to Avogadros constant : $6.022 x 10^{23}$

Therefore 0.5 mol is roughly $39 \div 2 = 19.5g$

This program is NOT a substitute for proper calculation. You need to use more accurate values. Values used are just a rough guide.

However it may be useful, for those quick calculations.

The program code base is taken from my Drake equation calculator I made a few weeks ago.

## July 23, 2020

Molecular modelling with clay part 3

Further to the post earlier I am having mixed results trying to make double bonds from bendy straws. This is really proving to be not the most ideal solution.

I am experimenting with using straight straws side by side to represent a double bond.

This sort of works, but still isn't ideal, perhaps I'll just stick to single bond molecules.

Doing modelling with clay is certainly not an ideal solution but, as stated it may simply help with some basic modelling if you can't get hold of the actual modelling kits.

Just don't try and be adventurous.

This is science, so it needs some more experimentation to find an ideal solution.

if anyone has those craft match sticks such as these:-

as sold by Factory Direct Craft.com

This may prove to be a better solution than straws. You can get shorter lengths which will probably be better.

Don't go and buy any, I would suggest to see if you can get a few to experiment with, after school or other child care clubs usually have craft materials, so I would suggest experimenting first.

## July 23, 2020

Molecular modelling with clay part 2

As discussed in my post yesterday. I am going to introduce how to build a few a basic molecules with the resources suggested.

Step 1

Firstly I have cut the Black and White modelling clay to size.

The sections on the RIGHT can be put away for later use. You can see I have more White clay for Hydrogen than Black which I am using for Carbon.

Step 2

Now cut the clay up, roll in to balls and assemble the straws (links) that are needed (in this case 4) It is a good idea to make sure you have all the bits you need to hand.

The Carbon is bigger as we need to attach the 4 Hydrogen to this.

So here, is our Methane model, partly assembled. I have left the last one off for illustration.

The final step is to attach the last Hydrogen to the Carbon creating Methane $CH_4$.

Hope this helps, it may not be perfect but it may help if you can't get hold of actual Molymod kits.

Hopefully what this will allow you to do is visualise basic chemical structures.

There is an addition to this post here